Pepper Spray to get rid of attackers

Pepper spray is a kind of self defense product. Pepper spray was originally invented by a mailman who has to deal with unfriendly dogs during his work. Pepper spray is a chemical compounds that is used for self defense against attackers and animals. The attackers are generally drug abusersScience Articles, drunkers and rapists. The effect of pepper spray differs from man to man based on their tolerance capacity. It causes irritability to eyes in the form of tears and pain. The composition of spray includes oleoresin capsicum and OC gas. It is a powerful weapon for self defense for man and woman both. Now a days the policemen also uses this spray on their duty. Pepper sprays are very easy to use. The attacker is on the ground after three minutes if you use pepper say. Pepper spray is very easy to acquire also because you do not need any registration for that.

The effects of pepper spray are very serious that includes: Temporary blindness which can remain for twenty to thirty minutes.

Immediate closing of eyes.

Difficulty in breathing that can last for three to ten minutes.

Difficulty in speaking.

Uncontrolled cough.

Runny nose.

Burning sensation of skin.

Pepper spray are very small in size and can be kept in pocket. Thus you are assured about your safety because it is always near to you. They can be concealed in rings. In this type of pepper spray the ring is filled with an alkaloid powders. It can be used from a distance of about two feet. the only thing you needed is to just press a button. Pepper projectile is also available which can be fired using a paintball gun. Now a days triple action pepper spray is also available whose composition includes tear gas with OC gases and oleoresin capsicum. Pepper sprays are provided with canisters so that if the powder in the weapon gets finished you can refill it. You just need to remove the old canister and fill it with the new one.

If you are buying a pepper spray you need to keep in mind that the amount of pepper should be eight percent and a minimum of two million SHV( Scoville Heat Units).It is the highest intensity of pepper permitted legally. If the pepper content is less than this than spray is of lower quality. The pepper spray is not so expensive so any person who is conscious about his safety can use pepper spray.

Sorry Cat Lovers Felix Doesn’t Need You

Dogs have owners, cats have staff.

Though the old joke is a stereotype of a feline’s independent nature, that trope may have some scientific backing.

Cats do not form the childlike dependence on humans that dogs do, new research suggests.

That doesn’t mean people’s feline friends don’t bond with them, said Daniel Mills, a veterinary behavioral medicine researcher at the University of Lincoln in England.

“This is not about whether cats love their owners,” Mills told Live Science. Rather, it just means that Felis catus doesn’t look to its human owners as a source of safety and security, he added. [Here, Kitty, Kitty: 10 Facts for Cat Lovers]

Strange situation

The new results are based on a test called the “Strange Situation.” In the test, which was developed for humans by psychologist Mary Ainsworth in the 1970s, researchers put a mother or primary caregiver and a baby in one room together and then asked the mother to leave as a stranger walked in to play. Ainsworth found that some tots would play joyfully while their caregiver was around, act fearful or distressed when the caregivers left, and then act happy when the mother figure returned. Those little ones were “securely attached,” Ainsworth said, meaning they saw their mom as a “safe base” from which to explore the world. By contrast, some youngsters seemed indifferent to their moms’ presence and absence, while others were tentative when approaching a returning mom, and still others showed a very erratic response.

Securely attached infants tend to do better in school, relationships and life in general than those with other forms of attachment, scientists have found.

A study published in 2013 in the journal PLOS ONE found that dogs similarly cling to their owners as a haven of safety when a threatening stranger is near. The researchers concluded that, just like human babies, these little fur babies could become securely attached to their caregivers. A small 2002 study suggested that cats could develop separation anxiety, but the findings weren’t carefully verified.

Self-reliant creatures

To see whether cats showed a similar puplike attachment, Mills and his colleague Alice Potter, who now researches companion animals at the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in England, put cats in the equivalent of the Strange Situation. In the new study, owners left the cats in a room and a stranger then entered and tried to engage the kitties in play. The researchers selected cats whose owners said they were particularly attached to them.

Overall, cats lived up to their fickle reputation; they had quite variable behavior.

“The idea of developing behavior tests in cats is much harder than people perhaps realize,” Mills said. Researchers may “do a test and say, ‘Oh, this is the cat’s profile.’ If you do the test on a cat a few weeks or a few hours later, it’s different.”

The felines also showed no clear signs of attachment, other than slightly more frequent meows when the owner left them with the stranger, the researchers reported Wednesday (Sept. 2) in the journal PLOS ONE.

However, those meows could have been signs of frustration, a conditioned response, as cats tend to meow more if their owners chat with them, Mills said. The results suggest that, unlike dogs, cats don’t look to owners as a sort of security blanket. [Are Cats Smarter Than Dogs?]

Love among equals?

Ask any cat person, however, and they would swear that Mr. Whiskers does love them. They may be right, Mills said. The new findings simply mean cats don’t see their human companions as parentlike figures. For instance, in the Strange Situation test, parents don’t form a secure attachment to their babies because they don’t see their children as a “safe base” — but it would be wildly inaccurate to say that parents don’t love their kids. It may simply be that feline-human love is rooted in something other than dependence.

It’s also possible that cats simply don’t wear their emotions on their fur, so to speak, and that another test might better gauge their attachment to owners, Mills said.

Still, he thinks the findings do reflect a truth about cats’ independence.

“If you think about it, why should cats depend on people for safety and security?” Mills said. “Cats are naturally very independent hunters.”

By contrast, dogs hunt in packs, and so may naturally gravitate toward others when looking to meet their needs, he added.

Meet 6 Animals That Predict World Cup Winners

an octopus named Paul correctly predicted the outcome of eight World Cup matches in a row, including the final showdown between Spain and the Netherlands.

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In 2010, after winning worldwide attention as an animal oracle, Paul passed away at the tender age of two and a half – a normal lifespan for an octopus vulgaris. But a raft of other animals have been competing to fill Paul’s, er, shoes in the 2014 World Cup season. So far, however, the would-be successors to Paul the Octopus haven’t been faring so well.

Nelly the Elephant predicted that the German team would overtake the Ghanians in the second round. The match, however, ended in a tie.

Pele the Piranha predicted that the host country of Brazil would defeat Mexico. This match, however, also ended in a tie.

Flopsy the Kangaroo, a.k.a.  the “Predictaroo,” correctly predicted that Brazil would defeat Croatia in the opening match of the World Cup but flopped badly in predicting that Australia would defeat Chile.

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Alves the Tapir also correctly predicted the outcome of the opening match between Brazil and Croatia. But he wrongly predicted that England would prevail over the Netherlands, whose team is still going strong.

Big Head the Turtle was the third animal to correctly predict the outcome of the Brazil-Croatia match. But, like Pele the Piranha, he wrongly predicted that Mexico would beat the host country of Brazil in their second match (it ended in a tie).

So, for now, much hope – at least here in the United States – rides on Nasar, a prognosticating horse who lives inside a 300-year-old farmhouse in Hold, Germany, with his owner, Stephanie Arndt, a doctor. When the online editorial office of a local newspaper enlisted the horse’s help in predicting the winner of the U.S.-Germany World Cup match on June 26, Nasar predicted that the United States would win by kicking a beach ball into a miniature soccer goal with a U.S. flag attached to it.

Could Nasar be the real deal – the never-fail Ouija of the animal kingdom? Stay tuned.

 

Also of Interest

  • Freestyle Soccer Star Séan Garnier Wows Crowd With Old-Man Prank
  • 10 Money Wasters You Should Think Twice About
  • Fight fraud and ID theft with the AARP Fraud Watch Network.

Surprise! Newfound Venomous Spider Drops in on Scientists

Most people likely wouldn’t react well to being surprised by a venomous spider, but recently, scientists at Booderee National Park, on the southern coast of Australia, were excited when a highly venomous funnel-web spider showed up unannounced.

Many species of funnel-web spiders, named for their funnel-shaped webs, are indigenous to Australia, but only one of these species, the Sydney funnel-web spider, is known to live in Booderee National Park.

Sydney funnel-webs (Atrax robustus) are ground-dwelling spiders with highly venomous bites that, before the development of an anti-venom, posed a serious medical risk to humans. Funnel-webs, including Atrax robustus, were believed to be responsible for at least 13 deaths in Australia before the anti-venom became available, in 1981. [Creepy, Crawly & Incredible: Photos of Spiders]

But the spider found along Australia’s southern coast by scientists from the Australian National University (ANU) wasn’t Atrax robustus. In fact, it might be a brand-new species of funnel-web spider, said Thomas Wallenius, a biologist at ANU’s Research School of Biology and one of the scientists who uncovered the arachnid.

“It’s remarkable that we have found this other species in Booderee National Park. It shows we still have a lot to learn about what’s out there in the bush,” Wallenius said in a statement.

The spider next to a large coin.
The relatively large funnel-web spider is about 2 inches, or 50 millimeters, long.
Credit: Stuart Hay ANU

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The nearly 2-inch-long (50 millimeters) specimen is fairly large for a funnel-web spider, the researchers said. And unlike the Sydney funnel-web, this critter lives inside of fallen trees, not in underground burrows. This suggests that the newfound spider belongs to the genus Hadronyche, which consists of funnel-web spiders that are saproxylic, or dependent on dead or decaying wood for survival.

When Wallenius found the spider, it was burrowed in its “lair,” a long web inside of a rotten log.

“They build a silk-lined burrow inside the hollow log, which can be up to 2 meters [6.6 feet] long. She had probably been living in there for 25 to 30 years,” Wallenius said.

That’s right: Funnel-web spiders aren’t just potentially deadly; they also live for an eerily long time. A study presented at the 22nd International Congress of Entomology in 2006 states that captive funnel-web spiders have a maximum life span of two decades.

The discovery of the (perhaps) previously unknown species of funnel-web spider comes on the heels of another exciting finding by ANU researchers. Last week, an ANU biologist discovered a rare, red-fanged funnel-web spider belonging to the species Atrax sutherlandi in Australia’s Tallaganda State Forest. This area, like Booderee National Park, is located in the southeastern state of New South Wales.

ANU ecologist Mark Wong uncovered the red-tinted arachnid while searching for funnel-web spiders under a rotting piece of wood.

“Almost instantly, the spider had rushed out of her silken lair with her legs raised and fangs greeting me with glistening venom,” Wong told Live Science in an email interview last week. “Taken aback by her colors, I knew there and then this was something special.”

While some members of the A. sutherlandi species have a bit of red tint on their bodies, this was the first time Wong and his fellow researchers had observed a specimen with red fangs.

The discovery of both the blood-hued funnel-web spider and its cousin, the log-dwelling spider in Booderee National Park, are part of a large study of biodiversity in New South Wales. The state is also home to many species of peacock spiders, which are much less venomous than funnel-web spiders, and arguably a whole lot cuter (some of them even dance).

How You Can Help Fight Animal Cruelty

Animal cruelty is something that is close to many people’s hearts. Many think of it as an abuse that is akin to child abuse, since animals are also defenseless against the hands or neglect of humans.

It tends to rouse similar anger and outrage as well, and there are now many agencies that are set up to help prevent animal cruelty, and also shelters where rescued animals find solace and comfort from their abusive or neglectful environments.

Years ago, there were not even any laws set up to protect animals from abuse, and abusers were able to get away with doing just about anything they wanted without consequence.

Now, there are animal protection laws set up in almost every state, and if you are found guilty of inhumane treatment of an animal, you are subject to anything from fines to community service, to jail time.

While we’ve come a long way in legislating animal protection laws, there is still room for improvement, as they are not stiff enough penalties in most people’s eyes, and it seems that it’s still taken rather lightly.

While I’m not aligned with the extreme mentality of animal rights groups that preach vegetarianism and use tactics that I don’t deem appropriate to get their point across, I certainly admire what they are trying to do, which is drawing attention to the animal kingdom and getting the word out that our furry friends need our help when they do not have a voice of their own to defend themselves.

One can read about stories of inhumane treatment weekly in any newspaper, and some of the stories are enough to make one nauseous. There are stories of animals left in homes without food or water, in their own waste and crawling with fleas and ticks, stories of farm animals abandoned, neglected, underfed and abused, and horrifying tales of household pets being beaten, starved, deprived of care, and even killed at the hands of the very people who are supposed to take care of them, that all still need to be addressed.

There are some steps you can take to make sure you are not a silent voice in the quest to prevent animal cruelty, you just need to be aware of your surroundings and know what to look for.

You can report any suspicions to the local police, or if you have an agency that works with abused animals, you can call on them to investigate and rectify also, usually the APL (Animal Protective League) and other similar shelters and animal rights nonprofit organizations will be able to help as well.

Some of the signs to look for you may already know, as most people who are animal lovers have a built in instinct for knowing when an animal has been abused or neglected. Many animals who have been physically abused will be hand shy.

They will not want to come near you or any other person, and may be especially leery of their owners or react in an aggressive way toward them or others.

While this does not always indicate abuse, as some animals are just tempered that way, it is a good underlying factor to look at when determining if an animal has been physically abused.

If an animal has patches of fur missing or looks extremely thin, or even if they are overrun with fleas, this may indicate neglect. Another one to look for is animals that you see outside on extremely cold days, tied to a chain for hours without any warm shelter. This is dangerous and can be abuse if the animal does not have a place of shelter to retreat to.

Likewise if they are left chained outside for hours without food or water – water of course being the most vital of the two. Use your judgment, there are always animals that may be acclimated to certain situations, but if you consistently see this, and are suspicious it may be worth an investigation by an officer of an animal protection agency or the police department.

Of course the most obvious thing to look out for is actually witnessing an act of animal abuse. If you see a person physically assaulting an animal, please make sure you report this immediately, as this is the most blatant and obvious form of animal abuse and certainly warrants a report for investigation.

If we all do our part in preventing animal cruelty, we can make this world a better and safer place for our furry friends who entrust us with their life and well being. If we don’t look out for themHealth Fitness Articles, who will?

290 Million Year Old Creature Could Sprout New Limbs

If an ancient amphibian lost a limb or a tail, it could simply sprout a new one, according to researchers who found fossil evidence of limb regeneration dating back 290 million years.

The finding shows that some Carboniferous and Permian period animals had regenerative abilities a full 80 million years before salamanders, one of the few modern-day animal groups that can fully regenerate their limbs and tail, existed in the fossil record.

The fact that other tetrapods — a group comprised of four-legged vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds — had regenerative abilities suggests there are multiple ways to regrow limbs, said study lead researcher Nadia Fröbisch, a paleontologist at the Natural History Museum in Berlin. [Slithery, Slimy: Images of Legless Amphibians]

“Regenerative medicine is an active and very large research field,” Fröbisch told Live Science. Most regenerative medicine is focused on the molecular mechanisms used by modern salamanders, but “we don’t only have to look for things specific to salamanders, but also mechanisms present in all tetrapods,” she said.

Fröbisch has studied limb regeneration in salamanders for years. She’s not alone — at least 100 years ago, researchers noted that salamander limbs develop differently than those of all other tetrapods, and wondered if this helped explain their regenerative abilities.
Sclerocephalus fossil
[Pin It] The fossilized body of the Lower Permian amphibian Sclerocephalus discovered in southwestern Germany. Like today’s salamanders, the ancient Sclerocephalus could also regenerate its limbs, evidence suggests.
Credit: Hwa Ja Goetz, MfN
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When a typical tetrapod limb develops in an embryo, it grows its outer digit (the pinkie) first and inner digits in successive order. But salamanders do the opposite: They grow their inner digit (the thumb side) first and their pinkie last.

For decades, researchers thought that this odd developmental quirk evolved late in evolutionary history, Fröbisch said. However, recent examinations of fossils show that this pattern is older than previously thought, and existed before dinosaurs walked the Earth.

Fossil evidence shows that the salamander’s “backward” digit development is found in various amphibians of the Carboniferous period (359 million to 299 million years ago), and the Permian (299 million to 251 million years ago), including the Apateon, Micromelerpeton and Sclerocephalus, Fröbisch said.

In addition to the backward digit development, a 290-million-year-old Micromelerpeton from a fossil lakebed in southwestern Germany shows evidence of limb regeneration. (Limb regeneration is possible to spot with a trained eye: Sometimes when a limb regrows, it’s slightly deformed — containing fused fingers, for instance — indicating that it’s not an original limb, Fröbisch said.)

But backward formation of the digits isn’t necessary for limb regeneration, the researchers found. Microsaurs — amphibians that looked like lizards and lived about 300 million years ago — could regrow their tails, according to fossil evidence from the Czech Republic. But microsaurs developed digits the typical way — pinkie first.

“All together, the fossil data shows that [developing the thumb side first] in limb development and regeneration don’t always occur together,” Fröbisch said. “It’s not salamander-specific at all. It’s something very ancient.” [Album: Bizarre Frogs, Lizards and Salamanders]

However, the salamander is the only surviving tetrapod that has kept its regenerative abilities. (Lungfish also have these abilities, but they’re poorly studied and aren’t tetrapods, Fröbisch said). Over time, the lineage leading to amniotes (reptiles, birds and mammals, including humans) lost the ability to regrow limbs, she said.

Genetic discovery

In a separate but related new study, researchers examined salamander genetics and found two genes necessary for its formation of backward digits.

“Some time ago, we found a gene called Prod1 that is specific to salamanders and is involved in limb regeneration,” said study author Jeremy Brockes, a research professor of structural and molecular biology at University College London.

So, they knocked out Prod 1 in fertilized newt eggs with a gene-editing tool. As they observed the newts develop, they found that the protein Bmp2, critical for digit formation, was absent in these newts.

Without Prod 1 and Bmp2, the newt couldn’t form its digits on the thumb side first. This indicates that both the gene and protein are necessary for the salamander’s unique digit growth, Brockes told Live Science.

It’s interesting that the other study finds that thumb-side first-limb growth is found in some, but not all, early tetrapod fossils from the Permian era about 290 million years ago, Brockes said.

“This is before the appearance of the salamanders,” he said. “Our results suggest that these attributes, which are found together in present-day salamanders, may be linked by the involvement of common genes such as Prod 1.”

The fossil analyses and genetic findings were published online yesterday (Oct. 26) in the journals Nature and Nature Communications, respectively.